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 Confounding Factors in Phylogenetic Analysis. A Simulation Study
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Confounding Factors in Phylogenetic Analysis. A Simulation Study

издательство Книга по Требованию Книги
Cтраниц 96        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:These assumptions include rate homogeneity, independence among sites, and compositional stationarity. A number of assumptions must be made in phylogenetic analyses, however, and it is important that they are met. Phylogenetic analysis provides a framework in which we can investigate and understand the growing wealth of genetic sequence data, along with the evolutionary processes that gave rise to them. Collectively, these studies emphasise the importance of meeting the fundamental phylogenetic assumptions in our analyses. In this book, a novel simulation program is presented, making it possible to study the effects of among-lineage rate and compositional heterogeneity on phylogenetic estimates. The impact of these factors on estimates of divergence dates is also investigated, revealing that common compositional patterns are conducive to overestimation of dates. The consequences of violating most of these assumptions have been well studied, but the impacts of inconstant base and amino acid frequencies remain relatively under-appreciated. The book concludes with a detailed survey of compositional variation among complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2008
Цена:
1980 руб
Нет в наличии
Поиск: Confounding Factors in Phylogenetic Analysis. A Simulation Study


ДОСТИГ ЦЕЛИ, А СЧАСТЬЕ НЕ НАСТУПИЛО?


Приемы комического в языке произведений П.Г....

Whe he e cou ered Ber ha ex day i Pu ey High S ree a d, aki g her off o a co fec io er’s for a ice-cream, offered her wi h i his ha d a d hear , she accep ed hem simul a eously.; a d I spil ea o mr. Upjoh ’s whi e rousers. I deed, i would scarcely be dis or i g he fac s o say ha he was ow o so much weari g rousers as weari g ea. Как нам кажется, Вудхауз наиболее полно реализует иронию или достигает комического эффекта в пределах синтаксических схем, актуализирующих отношения характеризации, т.е. в тех, которые в комплексе охватывают ситуацию и отношения к ней, а именно к таковым относятся рассмотренные нами модели. 3. Средства реализации юмора и иронии на уровне текста. 3.1. Парадокс Парадокс – это изречение или суждение, резко расходящееся с общепринятым традиционным мнением или (иногда только внешне) здравым смыслом. Использование этого лингвистического феномена весьма популярно среди английских авторов. Примеры многочисленны: Оскар Уайльд, Бернард Шоу, Льюис Кэрролл, Гилберт Честертон. Парадокс нередко облекается в остроумную форму и обретает свойства комического. В художественной ткани произведения, когда парадокс включается в речь персонажа, он служит средством его характеристики. (Например, лорд Генри в «Портрете Дориана Грея».) Речь персонажей Вудхауза также испещрена парадоксами.
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