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 The Use and Effectiveness of Sanctions Bargaining and Economic Coercion.
Наименование:

The Use and Effectiveness of Sanctions Bargaining and Economic Coercion.

издательство Книга по Требованию Информационно-политические технологии
Cтраниц 160        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:International economic sanctions keep increasing their popularity, but empirical studies show that sanctions rarely persuade targeted countries to change their policies. If the target does not have military preponderance and the sender seeks less extreme policy changes, sanctions can be reasonably effective foreign policy instruments. If sanctions are ineffective, why do policy makers persist in using them? Second, senders frequently find it rational to overreach in their demands, selecting themselves into difficult disputes. Building on an alternative idea of sanctions as the visible part of a larger, more complicated interaction, this study proposes a bargaining theory that explains the sanctions puzzle. This paradox has led many scholars to argue that rather than being foreign policy oriented, sanctions have more to do with domestic politics or symbolism. The rigorous empirical analysis of 888 sanctions cases between 1971-2000 supports the theoretical argument. First, senders and targets bargain in the shadow of war, and sanctions appear ineffective because military threats prevent their full deployment.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2008
Цена:
2402 руб
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Поиск: The Use and Effectiveness of Sanctions Bargaining and Economic Coercion.
НОВЫЙ ГОД СИМВОЛ 2013 ГОДАУКРАШЕНИЯ
КАРНАВАЛ НА НОВЫЙ ГОД РАСПРОДАЖА
Ортомолекулярная медицина Orthomol Устрание причин заболеваний. Ортомоль это новый метод для лечения и профилактики болезней. Orthomol - ортомолекулярная медицина.
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Как правило, на каждом предприятии помимо основного жалованья (base salary) (Ro hschild D., Merriefield L., Craver Ch. Collec ive Bargai i g a d Labor Arbi ra io . Р. 732) в коллективный договор включают и систему стимулирующих выплат (i ce ive sys em) (Ibid. P. 675). Размер установленного жалованья, обычно является величиной твердой, он не зависит от колебаний конъюнктуры и итогов деятельности компании. Система материального вознаграждения, по мнению американских специалистов, должна удовлетворять следующим требованиям: . поощрять работников к более усердной работе; . платить "более либерально", когда дела компании идут хорошо, и "менее либерально", когда результаты недостаточно высокие; . не платить за усилия, а платить за результаты, и главным образом за те, которые выражаются в прибыли. Для управленцев в качестве стимулирующего фактора предусмотрена выплата наградных (bo uses) в различных формах: деньгами, в виде акций, права на доход от прибыли. Компании стараются не разглашать порядок определения размера бонусов, так как здесь затрагивается вопрос о механизме перераспределения прибыли.
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