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 Making the Baltic Union. The 1655 Federation of Kedainiai between Sweden and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
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Making the Baltic Union. The 1655 Federation of Kedainiai between Sweden and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

издательство Книга по Требованию Книги
Cтраниц 348        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:Reacting to the rising dominance of Catholic Poland, the aristocratic faction of the Lithuanian secessionists, many of who were firm Protestants, revolted and sought an ally in Sweden, which was the strongest power in the Baltic Sea area. This alliance was formalized in the Union of Kedainiai 1655 and the crown of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was offered to the Swedish king. During the general European crisis of the 17th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth broke down into a civil war fired by regional, social, political, linguistic and religious differences. The Swedes for their part were eager to find allies in their effort to control the Eastern Baltic, but misjudged the sensitive situation. This book is the first major study of the Swedish-Lithuanian alliance and combines Swedish, Polish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Russian and Ukrainian sources to give an all-round view of this complicated history. Swedish chances of incorporating Lithuania and Belarus into its realm floundered through military intervention, heavy-handed occupation, and disrespect for the local political traditions. David Gaunt, Professor of history at the Soedertoerns hoegskola, Sweden
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2008
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3233 руб
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Поиск: Making the Baltic Union. The 1655 Federation of Kedainiai between Sweden and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania


ДОСТИГ ЦЕЛИ, А СЧАСТЬЕ НЕ НАСТУПИЛО?


Военные реформы Петра I

В 1691 году из потешных отрядов формируется 2 полка – Преображенский и Семеновский. Значение этих полков для будущей петровской регулярной армии огромно: через эти полки пройдут почти все будущие высшие офицеры и сановники. Эти полки станут настоящей кузницей офицерских кадров русской армии. Дополнительно были созданы еще 2 выборных московских полка – Бутырский (командир - Гордон) и Лефортовский (командир - Лефорт). Здесь надо отметить и личные заслуги иностранцев перед русской армией. Петр Иванович (Патрик) Гордон (1635-1699) – шотландец, служил наемником в шведской и польской армиях в 1655-1661гг. С 661 года – на русской службе. Участвовал в Чигиринских (1676-1678) и Крымских походах. Дослужился до чина генерал-майора. Обладал огромными практическими и теоретическими военными знаниями, блестящий артиллерист. Именно он показал Петру высокое значение артиллерии в современной войне и сделал царя одним из лучших артиллеристов русской армии. Франц Яковлевич Лефорт (1655-1699) – швейцарец, служил во французской армии, потом перешел в голландскую армию (в составе которой воевал против французов).
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