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 Diagnostic Tools to Improve Donor Agencies? The Money-Moving Syndrome and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid. Lending Process to Aid-Receiving Countries
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Diagnostic Tools to Improve Donor Agencies? The Money-Moving Syndrome and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid. Lending Process to Aid-Receiving Countries

автор Nara F.M. издательство Книга по Требованию Экономическая теория
Cтраниц 140        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:This book examines in depth one of the potential causes of the low performance of foreign aid; in particular, the role incentive structures within international donor agencies could play in leading to ? a push? to disburse money. This pressure to disburse money is termed as the ? Money-Moving Syndrome? which exists when the quantity of foreign aid committed or disbursed becomes, in itself, an important objective side by side or above the effectiveness of aid. Aid ineffectiveness, defined as the low performance of aid in promoting economic growth and reducing global poverty, is a problem utterly complex, prevalent and unfortunately still unresolved. If the overall objective is to maximize the effectiveness of aid, it would appear essential to enhance the design and objectives of aid resources at the source, i. e. , at the stage where the funds originate with donors, before considering the causes tainting aid in recipient countries. For decades now, it has generated a huge literature reaching conflicting conclusions as to the justifications of aid, the impact of aid on growth and institutional reforms, and the role of economic and political institutions in aid effectiveness.
Автор: Nara F.M.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2010
Цена:
2415 руб
Нет в наличии
Поиск: Diagnostic Tools to Improve Donor Agencies? The Money-Moving Syndrome and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid. Lending Process to Aid-Receiving Countries


ДОСТИГ ЦЕЛИ, А СЧАСТЬЕ НЕ НАСТУПИЛО?


Теория языкознания

Так, интеррогативный речевой акт в определённых ситуациях общения может взять на себя функцию просьбы (один из видов директивов): Вы не дадите мне эту книгу до завтра? Обычно процессы речевой коммуникации протекают в виде последовательностей речевых актов. Связные последовательности речевых актов именуют дискурсом.Если в том или ином коммуникативном эпизоде происходит хотя бы однократная смена коммуникативных ролей, когда роль говорящего берёт на себя слушающий, а говорящий становится слушающим (в англоязычной литературе это явление именуется ur aki g), то мы имеем дело с диалогом. В нём друг с другом соотносятся реплики, или речевые ходы (moves). Связность диалога обеспечивается, между прочим, и тем обстоятельством, что за вопросом следует ответ, за приглашением или предложением чего-либо - согласие или отказ, за упрёком - оправдание или возражение, за комплиментом или похвалой - выражение благодарности, после оскорбления ожидается извинение и т.п. В речевое взаимодействие может быть включён и неречевой ход (так, вместо словесного согласия может последовать кивок головы, вместо ответа на вопрос - пожатие плечами).В заключение ещё раз надо подчернуть, что человеческая коммуникация вообще и языковая коммуникация в частности подчиняются тем конвенциям (условностям), которые приняты в данной этнической культуре или в данном социальном коллективе в данную историческую эпоху.
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