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 The Second-Order Predation Hypothesis of Pleistocene Extinctions. A System Dynamics Model
Наименование:

The Second-Order Predation Hypothesis of Pleistocene Extinctions. A System Dynamics Model

автор Elin W. издательство Книга по Требованию Микробиология. Вирусология
Cтраниц 156        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:The end of the last Ice Age (Pleistocene) saw: 1) significant climate and vegetation changes, 2) the introduction of humans to the New World, and 3) major megafaunal extinctions. The leading theories of these extinctions – climate change and overkill – are inadequate neither explains why: 1) ruminants survived better than non-ruminants; 2) many mammal species were diminished in size; or 3) why vegetative environments shifted. Climate change does not explain why climate changes of similar magnitude did not lead to similar extinctions. Overkill links extinction with humans hunting herbivores, but omits the reciprocal impact, of prey decline on predators, yet standard predator/prey models show predators cannot hunt prey to extinction. The Second Order Predation theory handles these concerns. It holds that humans reduced predator populations, leading to a megaherbivore boom, over-consumption of plants, environmental exhaustion, and extinctions. The mathematical model developed to test this hypothesis is the only one to date that can be used to compare all three extinction theories.
Автор: Elin W.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2009
Цена:
2415 руб
Нет в наличии
Поиск: The Second-Order Predation Hypothesis of Pleistocene Extinctions. A System Dynamics Model


ДОСТИГ ЦЕЛИ, А СЧАСТЬЕ НЕ НАСТУПИЛО?


Гражданская война в США

Значение - солдат-союзник. Первоначально было образовано словосочетание comrade i arms - "товарищ по оружию". Во время войны последние два слова просто отбрасывались и любого солдата-союзника называли уже просто comrade. Cri ers - lice a d vermi - Дословно "домашние животные". Само слово cri ers представляет собой не что иное как вариант произношения слова crea ures (существа), которое впоследствии приобрело значение именно "домашние животные". Во время войны этим словом стали называть вшей и тараканов, т.к. санитарные условия в армии оставляли желать лучшего и, естественно, эти паразиты стали на самом деле "домашними любимцами" для солдат. Dog robber - soldier cooki g for his mess - Дословно "похититель собак". Так называли солдата, назначенного готовить еду на весь отряд. Единственное, что было хуже еды в армии, были вышеупомянутые санитарные условия, поэтому любое мясо, которое изредка попадалось в еде, сразу относили к собачьему и все время спрашивали повара, где он поймал столько собак. Вдобавок считалось, что собак ловили только бродячих, следовательно этот солдат буквально рыскал по помойкам для других солдат. Поэтому это слово приобрело и дополнительное значение: солдат "на побегушках", адъютант. - All officers i he cavalry had a dog robber (orderly) o ake care of heir horse a d shi e heir boo s.
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