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 Understanding the Role of Achievement Motivation in Medical Education. Untertitel
Наименование:

Understanding the Role of Achievement Motivation in Medical Education. Untertitel

издательство Книга по Требованию Медико-биологические дисциплины
Cтраниц 100        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:While participants in the "older cohort" strongly endorsed high mastery/low performance goals, the participants in the "middle cohort" endorsed a high performance/low mastery goal orientation and a low mastery/ low performance goal orientation. For the 2001-2002 academic year the proportion of enrollees less than 24 years of age increased to 27. 4 % from a pattern of decrease through 1995 (p. 9). Although initially demonstrating a pattern of decrease from 1983 to 1992, enrollment of students between the ages of 24 and 29 has gradually increased to the current level of 39. 7 %. Furthermore, enrollment of students over 29 years of age had systematically increased from 1983 to 1992 and then decreased to the current level of 32. 8 % (p. 9). Simon et al. (2002) noted that this is the 4th year since 1986 that the percentage of students over 29 years of age was less than the 24 to 29 year old group. For Question 2, the analyses of the data for this sample indicated that across the three age cohorts the participants endorsed varying goals. In the 18th Annual Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States, 2001-2002, Simon et al. (2002) discussed the demographics of both the applicants and enrolled students in PA programs nationwide. Further, ANOVA demonstrated that there were significant differences in the mean age of students endorsing high/low mastery goals and high/low performance goals. Of particular interest was the increase of enrollees less than 24 years of age. However, these programs are experiencing demographic changes in their enrollment patterns that may affect their ability to fully respond to the projected market demands of the future. Of those students who withdrew from their program of study during the 2001-2002 academic year, 47. 8 % reported academic reasons. Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and academic success at the collegiate level (Harackiewicz et al. , 1998; Harackiewicz, Barron, Tauer, Carter, & Elliot, 2000; Hayamizu & Weiner, 1991; Miller, Brehens, Greene, & Newman, 1993; Roedal & Schraw, 1995; Schraw, Horn, Thorndike-Christ, & Bruning, 1995; Shields, 1993); however, a recent review of the literature by this researcher identified only one study (Burley et al. , 1999) that specifically addressed achievement goal orientation and student age. Due to the limited research available that specifically addresses achievement goal orientation and student age at the college level, a gap in the literature existed. Ames (1992) suggested that motivation and learning are facilitated by certain classroom characteristics such as the types of academic tasks students are assigned, classroom authority, and the criteria used for evaluation and recognition. Understanding the relationship between achievement goal orientation and student age may encourage educators to tailor future courses and curricula to foster an atmosphere that better facilitates motivation and learning in their student population. Furthermore, educators may be able to identify students at risk for academic hardship, develop intervention strategies, and effectively administer those strategies thereby improving student learning and lowering attrition rates. Given the rising demand for qualified PAs to meet the needs of an aging public and an overwhelmed health care system (Berman, 2001; Hecker, 2001), PA educators must respond by developing a clearer understanding of the motivational goals of this increasingly younger student population and making the necessary adjustments to improve attrition rate. Building on Dweck (1986) and Nicholl' s (1984) theory of achievement motivation, the primary purpose of the study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between achievement goal orientation and student age in physician assistant students. Vago (1999) commented, "Everywhere change has become central to people' s awareness and there is a commitment to change that is irreversible, irresistible, and irrevocable" (p. 4). In no institution is societal change more evident than in the medical community. In the United States, approximately 71. 7 million people are expected to be 55 years or older by 2010, 15. 4 million people more than this demographic cohort represented in 2000 (Berman, 2001). Advances in medical technology are permitting an increasing number of health care problems to be treated, thereby increasing life expectancies. These advances, linked with an aging population, have generated an increased demand for health services and an increase in health care spending (Berman, 2001; Hecker, 2001). Currently, there is a nationwide trend to stem the rapid growth of spending on health care by medical insurers and the government (Berman, 2001; Hecker, 2001). In response to this effort, the utilization of physician assistants (PAs) in the hospital and clinic setting has increased as PAs assume some duties formerly performed by more highly paid health care workers. Remarkably, the Department of Labor has projected a 48 % increase in the number of physician assistant jobs between 1998 and 2008 (Association of Physician Assistant Programs, 2001, p. 3). Vago (1999) argued that institutions of higher education have a responsibility to respond to social change by adequately preparing students to join the workforce. In response to increasing market demands for physician assistants, there has been a rapid proliferation of PA educational programs nationwide (Simon, Link, & Miko, 2002). Finally, results for the participants in the "younger cohort" were not as well defined as their peers. With respect to question number 1, the results of the data analyses demonstrated a positive relationship between age and mastery goals and a negative relationship between age and performance. These participants endorsed a high performance/low mastery goal orientation as well as high mastery/high performance goal orientation equally as strong. Furthermore, these researchers reported that attrition was highest for students 20 to 23 years of age. Based on the responses of 499 students from 20 physician assistant programs, this study sought to answer two research questions: (1) What is the nature of the relationship between achievement motivation and student age; (2) What are the differences in the goals that students endorse across the age cohorts? Amongst the participants of this study, the older students had higher mastery goal scores than their younger peers, while younger students had higher performance goal scores than their older peers.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2008
Цена:
2007 руб
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Поиск: Understanding the Role of Achievement Motivation in Medical Education. Untertitel
НОВЫЙ ГОД СИМВОЛ 2013 ГОДАУКРАШЕНИЯ
КАРНАВАЛ НА НОВЫЙ ГОД РАСПРОДАЖА
Ортомолекулярная медицина Orthomol Устрание причин заболеваний. Ортомоль это новый метод для лечения и профилактики болезней. Orthomol - ортомолекулярная медицина.
Лечение кишечных заболеваний

Некоторые вопросы антимикробной терапии кишечных инфекцийSOME ASPEC S OF A IMICROBIAL HERAPY FOR I ES I AL I FEC IO S Е.Н. Падейская Ye. . Padeiskaya В статье представлены возбудители различных кишечных инфекций и рассмотрены вопросы этиотропной терапии этих заболеваний. Используемые для этой цели препараты делятся на две группы: средства, плохо всасывающиеся и оказывающие лишь местное действие,и системные препараты, способные, тем не менее, достигать высоких концентраций в содержимом кишечника.Особое внимание уделено препаратам группы фторхинолонов. Даны рекомендации по использованию антибактериальных средств с учетом этиологии заболеваний. he paper prese s pa hoge s of various i es i al i fec io s a d co siders heir e io ropic herapy. he age s used for his purpose are divided i o wo groups: hose which are poorly absorbed a d produce o ly local effec s a d hose which have sys emic effec s a d, ever heless. ca achieve high co ce ra io s i he i es i al co e s. Par icular a e io is give o a group of fluoroqui olo es. Recomme da io s are give o he use of a ibio ics accordi g o he e iology of he diseases. Е.Н. Падейская, профессор, д.м.н., МоскваProf Ye. . Padeiskaya, Doc or of Medical Scie ces, Moscow Широко распространенный термин “кишечные инфекции” относится к большой группе инфекционных заболеваний с преимущественным поражением желудочно- кишечного тракта (ЖКТ) и соответствующей симптоматикой (диарея, боли в области живота, в подложечной области, тошнота, иногда рвота, в тяжелых случаях – выраженная интоксикация, обезвоживание).
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