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 Correlation does not Imply Causation The fallacy is also known as cum hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for 'with this, therefore because of this') and false cause. But randomized
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Correlation does not Imply Causation

автор Frederic P. издательство Книга по Требованию Механика. Динамика
Cтраниц 68        мягкая обложка       
Аннотация:The fallacy is also known as cum hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for 'with this, therefore because of this') and false cause. But randomized controlled trials showed that HRT caused a small and significant increase in risk of CHD. 'Correlation does not imply causation' is a phrase used in science and statistics to emphasize that correlation between two variables does not automatically imply that one causes the other (though it does not remove the fact that correlation can still be a hint, whether powerful or otherwise). By contrast, the fallacy post hoc ergo propter hoc requires that one event occur before the other and so may be considered a type of cum hoc. The phrase's opposite, correlation proves causation, is a logical fallacy by which two events that occur together are claimed to have a cause-and-effect relationship. In a widely-studied example, numerous epidemiological studies showed that women who were taking combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) also had a lower-than-average incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), leading doctors to propose that HRT was protective against CHD.
Автор: Frederic P.
Издательство: Книга по Требованию
Год:2010
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Поиск: Correlation does not Imply Causation



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Конечно, при самой простой обработке порождения, перевода было бы достаточно (как почти во всех существующих ЭС), но в обработке, которая сосредоточена на порождении текстов на естественном языке, отношения и содержание в сообщении лучше всего просматриваются в виде команд для достижения определенного эффекта лингвистическими средствами. Оценка происходит при постепенной обработке от внешних команд к внутренним. Эта методика контроля естественна для разработчиков систем, так как она имитирует стиль языков программирования, которые они используют. Наиболее общие сообщения сегодня не создаются планировщиком, а являются просто структурами данных, которые извлекаются из основной программы и которым генератор дает особую интерпретацию. Подобная практика распространена в программах, которым необходимо объяснять свои рассуждения, заключенные в доказательстве дедуктивным методом исчисления предиката. Ниже приводится такого рода доказательство. На входе Li e 1: premis Exis s(x) [barber(x) a d Forall(y).shaves(x,y) iff o .shaves(y,y)l Li e 2: exis e ial i s a ia io (1) barber(g)a d Forall(y).shaves(g,y) iff o .shaves(y,y) Li e 3: co ju c io reduc io (2) Forall (y).shaves(g,y) iff o .shaves(y,y) Li e 4: u iversal i s a ia io (3) shaves(g,g) iff o .shaves(g,g) Li e 5: au ology (4) shaves(g,g) a d o .shaves(g,g) Li e 6: co di io aliza io (5,1) (Exis s(x) [barber(x) a d Forall(y).shaves (x,y) iff o .shaves(y,y)] implies (shave(g,g) a d o .shaves(g,g)) Li e 7: reduc io-ad-absurdum (6) o (Exis s(x) barber(x) a d Forall(y).shaves (x,y) iff o .shaves(y,y)) На выходе Assume ha here is some barber who shaves everyo e who does ' shave himself (a d o o e else). Call him Giuseppe. ow, a yo e who does ' shave himself would be shaved by Giuseppe. his would i clude Guiseppe himself. ha is, he would shave himself, if a d o ly if he did o shave himself, which is a co radic io . herefore i is false, here is o such barber.
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